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Nikon D810 review


When Nikon announced the D800, the camera’s 36MP was a big surprise and quite opposite to Nikon’s low resolution, big pixel trend back then. But it became a big success and the D800 quickly became the camera everyone go for when you want the best picture quality, no matter you are a enthusiast or professional photographer.

At the same time Nikon also announced the D800E, a twin brother to the D800. The only difference was that the filter in front of the image sensor was modified to remove the effect of the antialisiing, and that gave us sharper image. While I’m not too sure what D800E’s E officially really stand for, to me it means “Experimental”. It’s an experiemental product to test the results of removing the anti-alising filter.

So 2 years have passed and it’s time for Nikon’s engineer to show us what they can do to improve the D800, and the new camera is called the D810.


D800 and D810 (right),  similar but different.

“Most of these are actually quite small changes, but when combined together they make the camera feel better and more refined.”

The D810 is largely based on the D800 (and of course D800E). It has the similar weather sealed metal body. In fact, when I first saw the camera, I thought the D810’s body is exactly the same as the D800. But once I picked it up and had a closer look, i realised that’s not the case. The camera feels quite a bit lighter and fits better in my hands. I noticed there is a new “i” button at the back of the camera. The bracketing button that was at the top of the D800 has been replaced by the metering button. The focus mode selector button now has some texture pattern on it. On the left of the camera, the big rubber cover for the connection ports have now being divided into three smaller one so they can be open/close separately. The memory card door is covered by rubber and provides better grip. Most of these are actually quite small changes, but when combined together they make the camera feel better and more refined.

The rubber cover for the connection ports is now seperated into three smaller one. Also notice the new Qc mode

As mentioned earlier, when the D800 was released, Nikon also released a D800E, which outputs sharper photos than the normal D800 (but downside is you have a higher chance of visible moire effect). This was achieved by having a special filter in front of the traditional low pass anti-alising filter which cancels the effect.

Now this time with the D810, there is only one version of the camera and Nikon have completely removed the low pass filter.

In theory, the complete removal of low pass filter should give us even sharper images and I’ve seen some photos on other websites showing the D810 output sharper photos than the D800 and the D800E. But my quick comparison with D800’s RAW files didn’t reveal any difference in terms of image sharpness. So whatever the improvement is, it is quite small and probably not noticeable in most daily photos. On the flip side, I didn’t notice any increase in moire effect caused by the absence of the low pass filter neither.


 The 36MP D810 captures insane details.
Top: Full Photo
Below: Small Center Crop (click on photo to see it at 100%)



“I’m mostly excited about the fact that the minimum ISO that has been decreased to ISO 64 “

While the images from the D810 may not look any sharper than the D800(E), the camera can capture insane amount of details, as long as you have the right lens and settings. But what really excited me is the wider ISO range.
D810’s maximum ISO is increased one stop to ISO 12800 (expands to 51200). Comparing the results with a D800, if you shoot in RAW, D810’s high ISO performance is actually very similar to the D800. But if you shoot in JPEG, thanks to D810’s improved noise reduction algorithm, the high ISO output is noticeably cleaner. But to me, I’m actually most excited about the minimum ISO that is now reduced to ISO 64 (expands to ISO 32). That is around ⅔ stop lower than the previous ISO 100 limit.  I’m excited because finally this allows me to shoot wide open with my f/1.4 lenses under bright sunlight without the need of any external help. Previously I have to either use a ND filter (that means I have to carry multiple ND filters for my different lenses!) or stop down to f/2 to avoid blowing the highlight. Also, when shooting landscape photos, I can nearly double my exposure time for smoother waterfall or sea effect. In the last few years, camera manufacturers have been battling on who can do high ISO the best. As a result, even the entry level APS-C DSLR today have very decent high ISO performance. So while it’s always good to have better and better high ISO performance, I’m even happier to see Nikon shift it’s focus on improving low ISO and other areas that is just as important to us photographers.

The camera’s autofocus system remains the same 51 point system.  Nikon has finetune and improved the autofocus performance. I found AF tracking more reliable than D800 when shooting moving target and performs very similar to the D4s. There is also a new “Group-Area” AF mode that has less chance of missing a smaller target.

The D810 has no problem handling high dynamic scenes

While I do wish the 51 autofocus point can spread out a bit more and not all of the cross type AF point are placed at the center, the autofocus performance is very good and there isn’t really much I can complain about. So let’s see if we will see a new autofocus system when Nikon release the D5 in a few years time?

“I found that I can indeed shoot at slower shutter speed with the D810 and still manage to get a similar percentage of sharp photos.”

When shooting photo with a D800/D800E handheld, most user would use higher than normal shutter speed to avoid image blur caused by camera shake. With the D810, Nikon has redesign the shutter/mirror module and also added an electronic 1st curtain to reduce the internal vibration. I found that I can indeed shoot at slower shutter speed with the D810 and still manage to get a similar percentage of sharp photos. This means I could use lower ISO and get better quality picture.
And because of the new shutter/mirror design, the shutter sound is much quieter and better dampened. It’s almost as quiet as a D7100. While some users may prefer D800’s more crisp and louder shutter sound, the quieter D810 is definitely great if you want to shoot without attracting attention.
The Q (Q for quiet) mode is still available if you want even quieter shutter sound, and there is also a new Qc (Quiet Continuous) mode as well.


The D810 ‘s shutter sound is much more quiet. than all the previous FX cameras. I shot this photo with a 58mm lens and the shutter sound didn’t wake up my newborn baby from his sweet dream.  I wouldn’t dare to do this with my D800.

The camera uses the same metering system as the D800 which is as good as you can get from any camera.  There is a new ‘highlight-weighted’ metering mode, which is designed to preserve highlight detail in contrasty scenes. If you have shot stage/concert photos before where your main subject is always under strong spotlights, you would have found it very hard to get the correct exposure using the normal metering modes. Matrix metering would overexpose your main subject easily. Spot metering and lock the exposure wouldn’t work as well as normally the stage lighting is changing constantly and quickly. This new highlight-weighted metering mode would be perfect for shooting this kind of photos. I also found this new metering mode useful for shooting sunset/sunrise landscape photos so you don’t get completely blown out sun and highlight area.  Now Nikon, how about share some love to us D800 users and release a new D800 firmware with the highlight-weighted metering mode? I’m pretty sure it wouldn’t require any additional processing power compare to the existing metering mode.

d810review_09Top: Matrix Metering
Bottom: Highlight-weighted Metering

Live view mode always feel like a last minute added feature on most Nikon DSLRs. While Nikon has improved their cameras’ live view mode quite a bit in the last few years, it is still slow and clunky. I’m glad to tell you that D810’s live view mode is a lot more usable when compare to the D800. Turn on the live view mode is quick and everything in live view mode just works a little bit smoother. Most importantly, taking a photo in live view is a lot faster and doesn’t lock up the camera for 2-3 seconds like other previous cameras. There is also a new ‘Split screen zoom’ display in live view which allows horizons/lines to be leveled precisely. Overall, te whole live view interface is just a lot more refined.  Because of that, I found that I actually used the live view mode a lot more when reviewing the D810.
Now if Nikon can improve the autofocus performance in live view mode and make it as fast as some of the best mirrorless cameras, then the live view mode would be perfect


The new split screen zoom mode is quite handy when shooting landscape

The D810 has a sRAW output option which outputs 9MP raw files. To be honest I’m still not too sure why people want to buy a high resolution camera and shoot in small size as memory cards, storage space and fast computer are so cheap these days. But anyway for those who wants to use sRAW,  thanks to D810’s high resolution sensor, it’s 9MP sRAW is a lot more useful than the D4s’s tiny 4MP sRAW. With a good 9MP image,  a decent size and quality print is possible even after some minor cropping.
I’ve also compared the sRAW and full size RAW file taken at high ISO, and I didn’t see any advantage in picture quality with the sRAW files.

D800’s maximum burst rate is 4fps, this is largely because of the high resolution output. While 4fps is not painfully slow, sometimes I do wish it could go slightly faster. So I’m quite happy when I heard that the D810’s maximum burst rate is increased by 25% to 5fps. Or 7fps if you shoot in DX mode with supported batteries (which requires the optional battery grip). It’s still not a 11fps D4s, but it makes shooting fast actions a lot easier.

Nikon D810 + Nikon 58mm f/1.4 – f/1.4 1/8000s ISO64
This is not a wedding photo, (not wedding season at the moment) but wedding photographers shooting with prime lenses would love the new ISO64 setting!

For people who want to upgrade from a D800, you are lucky because the D810 uses the same battery and same optional battery grip as the D800.  Not only that, Nikon tells us the rated battery life has been improved from 900 shots per charge to 1200 shots per charge. This is probably due to the more efficient EXPEED4 processor and it’s great for wedding or event photographers who need to take thousands of photos per day.

Just like the D800, the camera has dual card slot, 1 SD and 1 CF. I completely understand why Nikon choose this setup.  But after using the D800 for 2 years, I would really prefer a single card format for both slots. Either make it both CF or both SD.  It’s just a lot easier when you don’t have to carry 2 type of cards.

The D810’s 100% viewfinder is pretty much the same as the one on D800. It’s large and bright. But it now has a OLED display panel which has higher contrast and easier to read.

“After using so many cameras and smart devices with touchscreen, I do really want a touchscreen on the D810. “

The camera’s main LCD screen has been upgraded from a 3.2” 921k screen to a 1229k RGBW screen. The increase in dot count doesn’t actually increase the resolution, instead the new screen has better brightness and that makes screen easier to see at outdoor. After using so many cameras and smart devices with touchscreen, I do really want a touchscreen on the D810. Imagine you can just pinch to zoom when reviewing photos, or touch on the screen to select AF position in live view mode. It would make reviewing photos and liveview operation a lot quicker and easier.

D800 (Left) vs D810 (Right)

Just like the D800, the D810 doesn’t have built-in WIFI support. Instead, it requires you to buy the optional Wifi adaptor.  Not only the Wifi adaptor is expensive and more importantly it’s another piece of accessory you have to carry and add externally to the camera. A few years ago when D800 was released this was not too bad but it’s now already mid 2014. Having the ablility to wirelessly transfer photos to other computer or smart devices and to the internet is very useful for both professional and consumer users. Even a lot of compact cameras comes with built-in WIFI these days  so come on Nikon, make the Wifi built-in and make it standard feature for your future DSLRs please.  Similar but maybe slightly less important is the  GPS  receiver for geo-tagging photos.

” if you are a videographer, you will definitely find the D810 a lot more attractive than the previous Nikon DSLRs.”

For the videographers, there are tonnes of improvements for you You can now shoot 1080p video at 60fps, there is zebra display, a new flat picture control for maximum post-processing flexibility, auto ISO is now supported in manual mode, the built-in mic is now a stereo one. You can also record to memory card while simultaneously outputting video over HDMI. While I haven’t really done too much testing on the camera’s video features, but if you are a videographer, you will definitely find the D810 a lot more attractive than the previous Nikon DSLRs.

The camera has many more little touches and improvements here and there that you may not notice straight away. For example, the top LCD displays a looping animation when you are doing a long time exposure. While some are quite minor, they all add up to a more refined shooting experience.



As a D800 user, when the D810 was announced and I read about the press release, to be honest I was not that excited. I thought it’s just a D800s, a small update to the D800 and there are only a few things I really want that my D800 can’t give me.

Now, after using the camera for two weeks, in some way that’s still true. There are a few things I really want, for example the ISO 64, the highlight weighted metering mode, the faster FPS. But there are so many other improvements that individually may not be too important, but when you add them up, the sum equals to a much better camera than the orignal D800.

I’ve used the word “refine” a few times in this review, and this is exactly what the D810 is.   It’s not a revolutionary new camera, it’s not a camera that would WOW us (unless you never heard about the D800), instead the camera is all about refinement.

The D810 has a better image sensor, handles better, autofocus better, responses faster, is more quiet, battery last longer. The camera is just does everything a bit better.

A lot of these improvements are not really noticeable if you just read the spec sheet, but after you spend some time shooting with a D810, you’ll then see the efforts and improvements Nikon has put into the D810.

If you have been thinking of upgrading to a D800 for a while but still haven’t done it, do yourself a favour and go order a D810 now.  It’s not a flawless camera, but it’s pretty damn close.



  • that insane 36MP output!
  • native ISO 64 
  • excellent image quality
  • More quiet and better dampened shutter
  • Much more refined than the D800
  • The new Highlight-weighted metering mode
  • Long list of improvements for video recording
  • Better battery life
  • Refinement!



  • Liveview autofocus speed is still nowhere as fast as the mirrorless cameras
  • A touch screen LCD would be nice
  • No built-in Wifi/GPS
  • The SD/CF dual slot configuration



Sample Photos
All photos RAW ->Converted to DNG and edited using Adobe Lightroom 5.5, to taste. (click on the photo to see a larger version)



 Nikon D810 + Nikon AF-S 35mm f/1.4G – f/2 1/40s ISO12800


d810review_12Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 85mm f/1.4G – f/1.4 1/8000s ISO100



 Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 58mm f/1.4G – f/1.4 1/8000s ISO64


Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 85mm f/1.4G – f/5 1/400s ISO100



 Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS24mm f/1.4G – f/6.3 1/500s ISO64



Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 85mm f/1.4G – f/1.4 1/2000s ISO100


Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 58mm f/1.4G – f/2.5 1/4000s ISO64


 Nikon D810 + AFS 85mm f/1.4G – f/1.6 1/8000s ISO100



Nikon D810 + Nikon AFS 58mm f/1.4G – f/6.3 5s ISO64



Reviewer: Richard Wong

Richard is a multi-award winning wedding/portrait photographer based in Auckland, New Zealand.  Richard’s website is www.photobyrichard.com and his facebook page is https://www.facebook.com/PhotoByRichard

Richard is also a contributing writer for the D-Photo and ProPhotographer magazine.

All photos and text Copyright© 2014 www.nikonjin.com. All photos and text may not be copied or reproduced in any format without obtaining written permissions

Nikon 1 V2 Review

Nikon 1 V2 is the latest mirrorless camera from Nikon. The letter V in the model name indicates it’s the high end model that is targeting users who wants more features than the base J and S models. While the V2 has inherited a number of internal features from it’s predecessor V1, Nikon has also made a number of changes internally and externally such as a new image sensor, different button/dial layout…etc and made it quite a different camera to the V1.

The most obvious difference between the V2 and the previous Nikon 1 cameras is it’s much larger grip and a more industrial look. While the larger grip does make the camera quite a bit larger, holding the camera especially with one hand also feel a lot better and more secure. Nikon has also redesigned the button layout, and make it more similar to it’s DSLRs. There are also two big dials on the top of the camera which makes changing mode and settings a lot easier. With the big grip and changes in the button/dial layout, the Nikon 1 V2 is definitely the most comfortable Nikon 1 camera to hold.

V2 has a new 14.2MP CMOS sensor. ISO range is from 160-6400. From low to mid ISO up to around 800, the picture quality is really good, the photos have very nice colours, and decent dynamic range. At ISO 3200, you can see the noise reduction algorithm is starting to remove quite a bit of finer details but overall the picture quality is still ok. ISO 6400 is for emergency use only. While it’s high ISO performance is definitely nothing like a full frame sensor, it’s still very good for a 1” sensor and can easily challenge a few mirrorless cameras with slightly larger sensor.

As a top end model, the Nikon 1 V2 has a built-in Electronic View Finder (EVF) in additonal to the main LCD screen. The EVF is pretty bright, smooth and has decent resolution. The lag is minimal so I can take action photos using the EVF easily. While I still prefer full frame DSLR’s good old optical viewfinder, the latest EVF like the one in the V2 is getting very close to the quality of the OVF and you have the advantage of WYSIWYG (What you see is what you get) when you are adjusting settings like exposure or white balance. Having said that, I did notice that sometimes the brightness of the image I see in the EVF is quite different to the final image captured by the camera and i can’t figure what is causing that. But apart from that, I enjoy taking photos using V2’s EVF.

One thing that can make or break a camera is it’s autofocus system, and V2’s Autofocus system is simply amazing. It’s a hybrid autofocus system that combines both phase and contrast detection. There are a total of 73 phase detection AF points and 135 contrast detection AF points that gives you a total of… 200+ AF points. Yes crazy! And it does work very well in real life too! Not only autofocus is lighting fast when shooting static object, (somehow i feel it’s even faster than my D800!), the autofocus accuracy is also very good. And when I was shooting moving object, the tracking works quite well too. I tried using the V2 to take photos of cars, birds or my daughter running around, and I was really amazed by the very high percentage of good photos that the V2 managed to capture. In comparison, my Olympus OM-D, which is also pretty fast and accurate when shooting static objects, performs very poorly once the object starts moving. V2 with it’s hybrid autofocus is definitely the best mirrorless camera for shooting moving objects.
Just a note, the V2’s autofocus system is basically the same as all the other Nikon 1 cameras, so V1, J1, J2, S1..etc they should all have the same amazing autofocus capability,

V2’s mechanical shutter speed has a maximum speed of 1/4000s which is similar to most cameras in this class. But it also has an additional electronic Shutter with a maximum shutter speed of 1/16,000s! And if you switch on the “Silent” mode, the camera makes no shutter sound at all when you are taking photos. This is really great when you want to take photo at a quiet place and don’t want to create any noise. Like taking photos of your baby and not worry about waking him up from his sweet dream.

Nikon put a lot of creative features into it’s 1 system camera and the V2 is no exception. The V2 not only inherits a lot of features from its predecessor like the Smart Photo Selector , it also has some new features like the Best Moment Capture Mode. The Best Moment Capture mode allows you to use slow view a moment you are capturing in real time. You just need to half press the shutter button and the camera will start capture live action (approx. 1.33 seconds). At the same time, the camera plays it back at five times slower than normal speed (approx. 6.66 sec) and you can pick the best moment you want. This action is replayed repeatedly as long as the shutter-release button is half-pressed.

Another big selling point of the V2 is it’s high burst rate. V2 can take photos at 15fps, with autofocus and at full resolution! It’s faster than the Nikon D4! But if 15fps is still not fast enough, you can increase the speed to 60fps if you don’t need autofocus between the continuous shots. And you still get the full resolution files (RAW/JPG). It means the camera is capturing 840 megapixels per second!! Crazy!

With the V1, a lot of people have complained that it doesn’t have a built-in flash, so you have to use the accessory port to plug in an external flash. But it means you can’t connect another external accessory (e.g. GPS) when you are using a flash. Good news is, the V2 now has an built-in flash as well as the accessory port.

Another cool feature of the Nikon 1 cameras, including the V2 is it’s ability to capture slow motion video at either 400fps or 1200fps. And tell you what, slow-motion videos are super fun! 1200fps is amazing and reveal things you never see with your naked eyes. But at 320 x 120, the resolution is really a bit too low for any real use.. The 400fps 640x 240 video is a better compromise in terms of speed and resolution. And is a LOT OF FUN! We spent a lot of time running around taking random slow-motion videos instead of photos when we were reviewing the camera. A lot of ordinary scenes suddenly look very interesting when captured at 400fps!

You can check out our youtube channel for some more slow motion video we captured using the V2:

For more advance video users, you can have full manual exposure controls when shooting in the Advance Movie Mode. And the camera also has a external mic input port.
Another cool feature is that you can capture high resolution photos when you are capturing full HD video. You won’t be missing a great photo opportunity anymore just because you are taking video.

If you compare the Nikon 1 cameras with other brand mirrorless cameras, you may notice the Nikon 1 camera bodies is a bit smaller, but not significantly smaller. But with any interchangable lens system, the size of the body is only part of the equation. Some of the large sensor mirrorless cameras may have a very slim and smallish body. But then once you mount a lens onto the camera, all of a sudden the camera is not really any smaller than a small DSLR anymore. Fortunately this is not the case with the Nikon 1 cameras. The loan unit I got from Nikon consist of a V2 + 4 different lenses: 2 zoom and 2 prime lenses. Everything fit inside a very small camera bag and total weight is next to nothing. Or I can easily put the camera with a prime or even zoom lens attached in my trouser pocket and put one or two more lenses in another pocket. The Nikon 1 lenses are really small and in my opinion that’s one of the biggest advantage of the 1” CX sensor. Among the 4 lenses I’ve tried, I especially love the 18.5mm f/1.8 lens. It’s nice, small, fast and picture quality is pretty good.

While the V2 doesn’t have wifi built-in, there is an optional WU-1b wifi adaptor. With the wifi adaptor and a iOS or Android device, you can have control the camera and take photos from your smart device. You’ll have realtime liveview, and ability to download photos through wifi. The wifi is pretty easy to setup, and the remote liveview has almost no delay, this is a lot better than the GoPro3 I recently tried which has a 3-4 second delay with it’s remote liveview display.. The only thing is, make sure you don’t lost the WU-1B as it’s really quite tiny. It would be good if Nikon can make the wifi module built-in for it’s future cameras.

During the review, I noticed the left side of the camera gets a bit warm after the camera’s being used continously for a while, especially after I took a number of slow motion videos. I am guessing the heat is generated by the cameras EXPEED 3A processor. The heat won’t make you feel uncomfortable but the camera is reminding you it’s got a really powerful processor and it is processing a lot of data!

But even with the powerful EXPEED 3A processor, battery life seems not too bad and is similar to most of the mirrorless cameras I’ve used in the past.

For a camera that is small enough to carry with me almost all the time, the image quality from the V2 is really pretty good. The Nikon 1 V2 has an amazing autofocus system, very fast 15fps (or 60fps) burst rate, 400fps slow motion video, wifi remote control..etc make this camera a lot of fun! My biggest concern for this camera is it’s price. The camera is not available for sale here in NZ yet when I’m doing this review so I don’t really know the street price. But looking at the V1’s price, I have a feeling it won’t be cheap when it’s finally available for sale. There will be a lot of really strong competitors at the same price range, most of them are mirrorless or even DSLRs with a much larger sensor. So will the market prefer V2’s very impressive feature list and compact size, or will people prefer a larger camera with larger sensor? I guess it’s a really personal choice. If you want a good small camera that is easy to operate, and with lots of cool innovative features, you definitely should check out the Nikon 1 V2.

Amazing Autofocus system.
Long list of innovative features
Capture full resolution photo at up to 60fps!
Slow motion video up to 1200fps
Compact size, that includes the lenses too.

EVF brightness is different to the image captured occasionally.
Retail price could be higher than what people want to.
Wifi could be built-in instead of external

Sample Photos
(All sample photos are RAW file converted to JPG using Adobe Lightroom)

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 18.5mm f/1.8

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 30-110mm VR

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 30-110mm VR

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 30-110mm VR

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 30-110mm VR

Nikon 1 V2 + Nikon 1 30-110mm VR

Reviewer: Richard Wong

Richard is an award winning wedding/portrait Photographer based in Auckland, New Zealand. Richard is also a contributing writer for the D-Photo magazine. (www.dphoto.co.nz)

Richard’s website is www.photobyrichard.com and his facebook page is http://www.facebook.com/pages/Photo-by-Richard/113755425305636


All photos and text Copyright© 2012 www.nikonjin.com. All photos and text may not be copied or reproduced in any format without obtaining written permissions

Nikon D600 Review

After releasing the D800, D800E and D4, Nikon has released it’s 4th full frame FX DSLR this year, the Nikon D600. Unlike the previous full frame cameras, the D600 is mainly targeting the enthusiast user market. It’s Nikon’s smallest, lightest and also cheapest full frame DSLR so far.


When I first saw the D600, I nearly mistaken it is a D7000! It’s design looks very similar to the D7000 and it’s only slightly bigger and heavier. The D800 is quite a bit bigger, taller and heavier than the D600.

D600 and D800 size comparison (Left: D800 Right: D600)

It shares the same metering system 3D color matrix metering II 2,016 pixel RGB sensor as the D7000.
And the autofocus system is based on D7000’s 39 point AF system. 9 of the autofocus points are cross type and seven of them can now focus at f/8. Like all the Nikon FX camera, all the focus points are within the central DX crop area and spot metering is linked to the active AF point. While I haven’t really spend much time testing the AF tracking or use some test chart to test the autofocus accuracy, the AF system seems pretty accurate and responsive when I was shooting real life photos.

The D600 also shares a lot of improvements and new features with it’s bigger brother, the 36MP FX D800. For example, the LCD screen is the same as the D800, it uses the same Expeed 3 processor, it has very similar video mode including uncompressed HDMI output, headphone out, external mic in and 1080p30 mode…etc

Videographers would love all these ports!


The camera has a partially magnesium metal body. The shutter rating is 150,000 and I was told the weather seal is same as the D800. So while it’s not as heavy or solid as a D4 or a D800, it is still a very solid and reliable camera that you can take it anywhere, and shoot it under pretty much any weather condition.

There are also infra red sensors on the camera so you can use an infra red remote trigger to trigger this camera. In additional to that, you can use the optional wifi module and control it with an Android or iOS device. Unfortunately there is no 10 pin remote Connector so you can’t use a normal remote shutter cable with the D600.

The camera is pretty responsive because of the Expeed3 processor. Going through the camera’s menu is quick and easy.

If you are a street photographer, you would also love the D600’s quiet shutter sound. It is a lot quieter than the other Nikon full frame cameras and won’t draw as much unwanted attention when you are taking photos. I’ve used the D600 to take some photos of a newborn baby during the review period. The little one was only 1 day old and was sleeping peacefully when I arrived. I switched the camera to the quiet mode, and took probably a dozen photos at short distance. The shutter sound didn’t upset the baby at all. I’m pretty sure it would be a different story if I was shooting with my D700 or D800 as those camera have a much louder shutter sound.

And for those of you who care about how the camera look, I think it’s a very good looking camera. It’s not too boxy nor too curvy, and with a medium sized zoom or prime lens attached, it looks and feels very nice and balanced.


As i’ve said in the beginning, the D600’s design is very similar to the D7000, but with some new changes. For example, the new live view control, the position of the video record button is the same as the new one on D800. There are now 5 buttons instead of 4 on the left hand side of the main LCD screen. The ISO button is now moved to the buttom most, allow user to adjust ISO easily when you are shooting. Auto ISO can now be enabled by pressing the ISO button and turning the front dial, just like the D800. So you don’t have to go into the menu to turn the auto ISO on/off anymore!

Zoom in at top, Zoom out at bottom. It just makes more sense isn’t it?


The D600 has dual SD card slots. You can assign the second slot to act as overfill, backup or storing a JPG. Just a few years ago, the only camera that has dual card slot was the flagship camera like the D3!

While the D600 doesn’t have the circle shape viewfinder like other FX cameras, it’s viewfinder is a 100% pentaprism and is really bright and large! There are also tonnes of information displayed in the viewfinder. And if you are using the Auto ISO mode, the actual ISO the camera selects is now also shown in the viewfinder.


The camera has a built-in RAW converter and some postprocessing ability. It also has a built-in HDR mode. The camera creates a “HDR” style image using 1 or multiple shots automatically for you. The HDR JPG output captures a wider dynamic range then normal photo. It works pretty well especially when you are shooting a high dynamic range scene, for example part of your photo is indoor and part of it is outdoor. Just don’t expect the crazy Photomatrix style effect as it’s designed for more subtle HDR effect.

Normal Mode

HDR Mode – Smooth Setting = low


But you need to remember the HDR mode can only be enabled when you are shooting in JPG mode with bracketing turned off. The camera will only grey out the HDR option unless you met all the requirements. I wish Nikon can improve this in the future and either offer to adjust all the settings to allow HDR mode, or at least tell you explicitly what is causing the HDR mode disabled. It’s not only the HDR mode, there are also a few other menu options that could grey out depends on other settings/conditions and if you are not familar with the camera it really can take you a bit of time to find out how to re-enable it.


D600’s live view mode is pretty much the same as the D800 and D4 and uses the new live view button/level design. It’s a lot easier to use when compare to the older live view design, The autofocus in live view mode while not as fast as some of the fastest mirrorless system, is still quite fast and doesn’t hunt too much. Unlike D800, you cannot adjust the aperture size once you are in liveview mode, unless you are using a AF lens with mechanical aperture ring. Unfortunately, the live view display’s framerate also drops quite a bit when you zoom in the picture, just like the D800. It makes manual focus using live view harder than it should be.


To differentiate the D600 from their own and more expensive D800, Nikon has to tune down some of the otherwise amazing D600 spec list. Fortunately, most of the missing things (when compare to the D800) like limited number bracketing frames, or the lack of AF-ON button I mentioned earlier..etc are minor and there are usually some workarounds. But the slower maximum flash sync speed of 1/200s (which can actually be boost to 1/250s) and the max shutter speed of 1/4000s are probably the biggest complains from me. If you are a landscape photographer or street photographer then you most likely don’t care but if you shoot a lot of sports, or you are a strobist, then the lower max sync and shutter speed (also with the lack of PC Sync jack) could really annoy you. But then Canon’s newly announced 6D (which is D600’s direct competitor) also has the maximum shutter speed of 1/4000s and max sync speed is even slower at 1/180s. So maybe I shouldn’t really complain too much?


When I first pick up my D800, I found that it requires me to pay a lot more attention to my shutter speed, aperture setting, lens selection and also I need to try to be steady as possible if I want to get maximum quality photos. With the D600, probably because of it’s lower 24MP resolution, I find it is a lot more forgiving as it doesn’t reveal every tiniest mistake I’ve made. The smaller image size probably is more computer friendly too for most people that doesn’t have the latest and fastest computer with the biggest storage space.


During the review period, 90% of the time I was using the camera with the 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR kit lens. The 24-85VR is one fantastic kit lens! While it’s a little bit plasticky, it’s also a lot more compact and lighter (and of course cheaper) than the 24-70mm f/2.8G and the picture quality is nearly as good under most situtations. And at f/3.5-4.5 it’s not too much slower neither. Some of the photos I took at wide open, look awesome even when viewed at 100%. A short review of the 24-85 lens will come soon!
So if you are upgrading from DX and need a standard full frame zoom lens, I would highly recommend you to check out the 24-85G.


So how’s the image quality?


After using the camera for about a week, under daylight, moonlight, shooting various kind of photos, I’ve to say I’m really impressed by the photo comes out from the D600.

The dynamic range is very good, a lot better than the D700 and probably just as good as the D800 which is the current king of DR according to DXOMark.
Combined with the clean image it generates, you have a extremely large amount of freedom to push the shadow details or recover highlight during post processing especially if you are shooting at low ISO.

Left Half: RAW -> JPG in Lightroom, all default settings
Right Half: RAW -> JPG in LR Exposure increased 6 stops, otherwise default settings, no noise reduction applied

For the photo above, the Correct Exposure should be around 1/15s but I shot the actual photo at 1/1000s so this photo was 6 stops underexposed. I pushed +6EV in post processing I’m guessing if I didn’t tell you the original photo was 6 stops underexposed you probably wouldn’t know.

Yes 6 stops!


When Nikon released their first FX DSLR Nikon D3. It’s high ISO performance completely blown everyone away. Maximum 5 digit ISO was something we never thought of being possible and it started the new high ISO war between different camera manufacturers. D700 uses the same sensor as D3 and it was the camera of choice for low light shooting for many professional and enthusiast users. So how does the new D600 and D800 perform when compare to the original low light king?

I did some quick tests to compare the picture quality of these three cameras at different ISO.

I tested each camera from ISO 100 all the way to 25600. All cameras were in manual Mode, all the photos were shot with the same lens, same shutter speed and aperture for each ISO setting. Same white balance was used and the camera was on a tripod. The RAW file is then loaded in Adobe Lightroom 4.2 , all default settings, no noise reduction, no sharpening, output to 10MP JPG to allow us to compare the results at same zoom level.

This is the test photo:

And here are the 100% crop results from the 10MP JPG.


Crop 1: Green Box

Crop 2: Blue Box


All test photos were taken indoor during daytime within an approx 10 minutes period. It was a partly cloudy day and the sun went behind the cloud from time to time, so the ambient light varies slightly. If you are wondering why some images are brighter than other, this is probably the main reason.

Up to ISO 800, there is virtually no visible difference between the three cameras. The D700 starting to show a little bit more noise at ISO 1600 but it’s not until ISO 3200 then the difference become very apparent. At higher ISO, the D800 still managed to retain a lot of fine details. But while D600’s photo has slightly less details, the chromatic noise seems to be much better controlled compare to the D800. So overall, I would say the D600 and D800 is pretty similar overall at high ISO.
The D700, which was once the best high ISO camera just not too long ago, really got beaten by his younger brothers. It’s approximately 1 stop behind the D600 and D800 in terms of overall image quality. Looking at the performance at ISO 25600 (remember these are photos with no noise reduction applied), I felt Nikon can easily push another 1 or maybe 2 stop and claim a maximum ISO of 51200 or 102400 if they want. But they probably want to be a bit more conservative and therefore limited the maximum ISO at 25600.




Nikon has released some really nice DSLRs this year, the latest D600 doesn’t disappoint either. In some way it’s probably the most exciting release this year as it’s the most affordable full frame camera that still comes with a very impressive spec list. And more importantly, the actual performance of the camera in real world is just as good as the spec sheet.

If you are a strobist, the lack of sync port, 1/200s sync speed may annoy you a bit. But for most of it’s target users, it’s really hard to find any major thing to complain about.

It’s probably the best ever camera for enthusiast photographers.

Even for the professional photographers the D600 would be a great lightweight 2nd camera to go with their D4 or D800. If someone is offering to swap my D700 (which is my 2nd camera at the moment) with a D600, I would accept his offer immediately! Anyone?

Now Nikon has completely refreshed the complete full frame DSLR line up and also their entry level DSLR this year. I wonder what the next DSLR release will be like?


– Fantastic dynamic range
– Great high ISO performance
– Small and light but still with decent build quality and weather protection
– Decent autofocus system and metering system
– Lots of features for a enthusiast level camera: Dual SD card, 100% viewfinder, mic in, headphone jack, uncompressed video out…etc. hm… my D700 doesn’t have any of them!
– More forgiving and computer friendly than the D800 because of it’s lower resolution
– Great quality kit lens

– 1/200s sync speed and the lack of PC Sync jack would disappoint strobists
– Cannot adjust aperture size once live view mode is turned on (unless you are using a AF lens with mechanical aperture ring)
– Live view mode still low framerate when you zoom in.



Sample Photos
(Nikon D600 + AFS 24-85mm f/3.5-4.5G VR, all photos are unedited JPG straight from camera)



f/6.3 1/800s ISO100

f/7.1 1/400s ISO100

f/7.1 1/400s ISO100

f/7.1 1/500 ISO720

f/6.3 1/13s ISO1600

 f/4.5 1/30s ISO1600

f/18 0.3s ISO100 (Handheld, don’t you love VR!)

f/9.0 1/0s ISO100

f/4.5 1/200 ISO180

f/6.3 1/13s ISO1600

f/4.2 1/1000 ISO100

f/6.4 1/100s ISO6400

f/4.5 1/200s ISO1400

f/7.1 1/13s ISO3200

f/8.0 1/400s ISO100

f/5.6 1/200s ISO220


f/7.1 1/132 ISO3200


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Reviewer: Richard Wong

Richard is an award winning wedding/portrait Photographer based in Auckland, New Zealand. Richard’s website is www.photobyrichard.com and his facebook page is http://www.facebook.com/pages/Photo-by-Richard/113755425305636

All photos and text Copyright© 2012 www.nikonjin.com. All photos and text may not be copied or reproduced in any format without obtaining written permissions

I AM D800 – our unusual Nikon D800 review

D800’s spec was leaked way before it’s official announcement. but Nikon was still managed to surprised us at the last minute with a much lower than expected price.
It’s pretty obvious there will be a huge demand and low supply for this latest full frame camera. So after it’s announcement, I went and pre-ordered one from Auckland Camera (www.aucklandcamera.co.nz)  immediately.



Unfortunately because of the new Japanese regulations, the ENEL3 and the ENEL4A battery that were used on the D200,D300,D700,D2,D3..etc are now replaced by the new ENEL15 and ENEL18 batteries.
To prepare ourselves for the new camera, Igot ourselves some ENEL15 batteries and large memory cards. And waiting for my camera to arrive.



One day, I got a call from Ken, Nikon’s NZ product manager and he asked me to call Auckland Camera tomorrow. He didn’t say clearly why so I can only hope it has something to do with the D800!
I called the shop the next morning and confirmed my D800 was already on the way to the shop. Hooray!!


Nikon claims the D800 is now able to autofocus down to -2EV. So one of the first thing I tested was the low light autofocus performance. I turned off almost all the lights and mounted a Nikon AFS 50mm f/1.4G lens on the camera. I put a lens cap on the floor as the AF target. Because it was so dark, it actually took me a long long time before i can see where the lens cap is through the viewfinder, and to be honest i can not actually see the lens cap, i can only tell there is something there! I thought there is no way the camera’s autofocus system can see anything.
But surprisingly, the camera can do a AF lock successfully on the lens cap (even though it took a bit of time), I set the aperture to f/1.4 and the metering system tells me at ISO25600 my shutter speed still has to be around 1/30s. I took a photo with that setting, and examine the photo on screen, at f/1.4 and close shooting distance the DOF is very shallow, but the autofocus was spot on!
Then I mounted the same lens on the D700. The D700’s AF system just can’t even see the target even after 15 tries. I don’t really blame it as my eyes can barely see where I should aim! I mounted the lens back on my D800 and yes it was able to focus and accurately again!
So, yes D800’s improved 3500FX AF system’s low light performance is simply amazing!
p.s. both camera’s AF assist lamp was turned off

At 36MP, the pixels on D800’s full frame sensor are a lot smaller than the one on the D3/D700. So as a wedding photographer who shoot under dim light regularly, I was quite worried about if D800’s high ISO performance could be worse than the previous Nikon FX cameras. Amazingly I found the 36MP D800’s high ISO performance is just as good as the 12MP D3/D700. Actually after taking some more comparison shots under controlled environment, I can confirm D800’s high ISO performance is at least 1 stop better than the D700. Even at the maximum ISO 25600, while the photo is a bit noisy but it retains tonnes of details if you look at the full size image and the colour and contrast still remain reasonably good! Nikon could have push the max ISO to 51200 or even 102400  if they want. I guess Nikon is  a bit conservative and don’t want to output barely acceptable photos from their cameras.

D800 has the dual-axis electronic virtual horizon that tells you your camera’s pitch and roll angle. This is very useful for landscape or architectural photographer. While D3/D700 also has the virtual horizon feature, it was single axis only and the implementation (especially the viewfinder mode) isn’t as good as the D800.

I did a little test to test D800’s RAW file’s quality and dynamic range. I first set the camera to aperture priority mode and took a photo. Checked the photo on the LCD screen, even though there was a bright light source in the scene the exposure seems pretty much perfect, so that’s good! Next, I dialed in a -5 EV exposure compensation on the camera, yes 5 stop underexposed the photo and took another photo. Now the photo looks very dark (of course, it’s 5 stop underexposed!). Then I loaded the photo in Lightroom, pushed the exposure up by +5 stop. Amazingly the photo still look very nice! The colours are still there, there is very limited noise and there are still lots of shadow details. I then did some quick editing in photoshop and created this photo. I  think it’s hard to believe the original photo was underexposed by 5 stop, what do you think?



I went to the Zoo today with the D800 and a Nikon 70-200mm f/2.8 VR lens. I quickly took a photo of this giraffe when it was walking past me. But even at 200mm I still can’t get the close up shot I want. Fortunately the D800’s 36 megapixel output means we can crop a lot and still have a lot of pixels left. I cropped the photo so the output is prerty much what I would got if I was shooting with a 300mm lens. The cropped photo still have more resolution than a D700 can output and virtually I have a 1.5x teleconverter I can use anytime. When shooting with the D800, be very careful with your shutter speed and remember to keep your hands and body very steady if you want to capture sharp images.



If you take a DSLR with you when you go out with your friends or family, normally you will be the only one that taking photos as most of your family members or friends probably don’t know how to use a DSLR. But D800’s much improved liveview mode makes taking photo a lot easier and similar to a compact camrea.
The contrast detection in D800’s liveview mode is a lot faster. It is not as fast as most of the latest mirrorless cameras but it is a big improvement over the D700 and make the liveview mode a lot more usable.
The new 91000 RGB pixel metering system helps doing the face detection and tracking. The face information is also used to adjust the exposure. While I still need to dial in a bit of exposure compensation, the frequency and amount of exposure compensation i need to adjust is a lot less than before. Overall the metering system is a lot smarter than D3/D700’s 1005 RGB metering system.

So with all these improvements, you can now give the camera to anyone in the family (or even strangers, just make sure they won’t run away with your D800) and they can take some nice family photos easily.

I took this photo in liveview mode. Autofocus set to AF-S + Face detection. I use the LCD to compose the photo and the camera detect my daughter’s face straight away. I press the shutter button and the camera focus on my daughter’s face accurately. Also the exposure seem pretty good even though there is strong backlight on the right hand side.

Ok, no sports photographer would buy a D800 as their main camera. The 4fps shooting speed is probably the camera’s biggest weakest and my biggest complain about the camera as well.
But if we consider the huge image size, 4 fps @ 36MP = 144MP/s. That’s more MP per second than even the D3s (9fps @ 12MP = 108MP/s).
I remember I was shooting lots of motorsports events with my 10MP 5fps D200 happily just few years ago and I was not really complaining about the speed. With the D800, we can also shoot at 5fps if we shoot at the 1.2x crop mode. And even with the 1.2x crop, we are still getting 25MP images. That is still more pixels than the D3x or the Canon 5D Mk3. And with the same latest autofocus system as D4 (which has features like 3D tracking, but we’ll talk more about that later) , there’s really no reason we can’t go to a race track and be a weekend racer with the D800.
And yes we can boost the speed to 6fps in DX mode. But we have to get the MB-D12 grip (and use the correct battery). Seeing the D7000 powered by the same battery and EXPEED2 chip can already do 6fps at a similar resolution (as D800’s DX mode), it makes me wonder if Nikon purposely limit the D800 just to sell some MB-D12 or is it really caused by some kind of hardware limitation.

But anyway, yes the D800 can definitely be used as a casual sports camera when it doesn’t want to be a landscape or portrait camera.
This photo was shoot with the D800 + Nikon AFS 28-300mm VR lens at 1.2x crop mode.

I haven’t really test the D800 under severe weather conditions yet, but I have used the D700 and the D200 under heavy rain and all different kind of weather many many times and the cameras never have a problem. So there is no reason why the D800 would be any different. Afterall, they all have alloy magnesium body and protected by extensive weather and dust sealing. Just make sure the lens you use also has good weather sealing and you dry the camera and lens properly afterwards.

Street photography is all about capturing what’s happening on the street, especially the action or interaction between people on the street. Most of the time the photo oppournity appears and disappears quickly. You have no control of the subject you are shooting, you have no control of the lighting and you only have a short period of time to capture the scene.
So what makes a camera good for street photography? If you ask me, I would say the ideal street photography camera should be able to take great quality under various lighting condition, it allows you to change camera settings and take photos quickly, and it should easy to carry around and take photo without drawing too much attention.
Is the D800 a good camera for street photography?
D800’s very good high ISO performance, amazing dynamic range allows us to can take great quality photo under various lighting condition.
Then all those quick access buttons and dial + button combination means we can adjust most of the camera settings quickly without even have to look at the camera. The improved AF system + new metering system with face tracking/detection feature means the camera can help you nail the focus and give you a decent exposure without too much hassles. Oh Nikon if you are reading this, I would actually like to have the cross type AF points a bit more spread out if that’s possible, that’s my biggest complain about the otherwise awesome AF system.
Now the D800 is definitely not the smallest camera in the world, but it’s still one of the smaller/lighter full frame camera (with the exception of the Leica M9). It’s considerably smaller and lighter than cameras like D3, D4 and definitely looks a lot less intrusive when you point it to a stranger on the street. While on paper, it’s only 95g lighter than the D700 which doesn’t sound like much, but if you are a regular D700 user, you will feel the D800 is considerably lighter when you hold it on your hand. Also compare to the D700/D3, D800’s shutter sound is more quiet now, it allows you to take a photo more discretely. D800, like most other new DSLRs, also has a “Quiet” mode, but to be honest I don’t find it to make too much a difference. It’s a pity as sometimes I do want the camera shutter to be more quiet.
So is the D800 a good street photography camera? I leave it to you to answer this question but I know I love doing street photography with the D800.

 D800 has the enhanced Multi-Cam 3500-FX AF system with 51 focus points. 15 of the points are cross-type sensors and 11 midpoints. It’s based on the AF system used on D3/D700 but with a few improvements.  For example, the AF system can now operate at f/8. It means you can mount a 2x teleconverter on a 600mm f/4 lens (which gives you an effective f/8 maximum aperture) and go take some bird in flight photos and the camera’s autofocus system will still work. But I don’t have a 600 f/4, actually i don’t even have a 300 f/4! But i still went out and took some bird photos with my little 28-300mm VR instead. The camera also uses information from the 91000 pixel metering system to improve subject tracking especially when tracking smaller size subjects. And I do feel the autofocus system can track fast and slow objects more accurately when compare to the D700 which uses the original Multicam 3500FX AF system. There are lots of autofocus settings and it may take a while to understand it. (Nikon didn’t do a really great job with the D800 user manual explainingg the different AF settings. I probably had more question marks in my head after i read the user manual) The different autofocus mode, like 21 point AF, 51 point AF, or 3D tracking AF mode, all has their plus and minus and sutiable for tracking different kind of objects and you really need to spend a bit of time to get familar and understand what works best for you. But when you got the correct setup for the photo you are taking, the autofocus system can track the object with great accuracy and allows you to capture some amazing photos.

Even though Nikon released the first ever video DSLR – the Nikon D90 back in 2008, their whole video engineering team probably immediately went away to celebrate as all the following DSLRs were sharing pretty much the same basic 720p video mode, including the otherwise fantastic D3s. So it’s not really surprising that we never see any professional or even amateur videographer that uses a Nikon DSLR for video. But when their engineering team finally came back from their 2 year long vacation, they knew they got some catch up work to do and we saw improved video recording capability on the D7000, D3100 and D5100 . Now, with the D800 and D4, Nikon is clearly putting a lot of efforts in the video department and we see 1080/30p record mode, HDMI umcompressed output, external microphone input, headphone out, full time continuous autofocus (with face tracking), crop mode recording, new liveview/video recording buttons…etc in both cameras. So while the D800’s video mode is still far from perfect, (for example, the noise performance in video mode could be better at high ISO, the autofocus speed is quite slow compare to the mirrorless cameras, the internal mic picks up a lot of autofocus noise), Nikon DSLRs are finally no longer lagging behind the competitors behind when it comes to video mode!
If you have watched the short video Joy Ride (https://vimeo.com/36326055) you’ll agree the D800 can create awesome quality videos even under challenging conditions.

I AM THE BIG PICTURE – this is the offical slogan for D800 and you can print some really big photos from D800’s 36MP photo. While some people love the huge output from the D800, there are also people who don’t like it and think most people will never need anything bigger than 12 (or 16, or 18) megapixels and the extra resolution is just a waste of memory card and hard disk space. Funny thing is, I remember a few years ago, we were all saying 6MP is more than enough and 10+MP is a bit of overkill (and admittedly i was one of them!). But anyway no matter which side you are on, the 36MP sensor is definitely the biggest talking point among the Nikon users (or even non-Nikon users). I picked the same slogan as the finale of my D800 “I AM” review.

So what can I shoot to show “THE BIG PICTURE”? I don’t live in France so I can’t go to the Nation library of France and replicate Benjamin Antony Monn’s beautiful library photo in the D800 brochure).

Now if I can’t think of a beauitful building with lots of details to capture, how about I capture lots of buildings instead? I decided to go up to the top observation deck of the Sky Tower, which is the tallest free-standing structure in the Souther Hemisphere. I want to take some photos of the beautiful city I live in.
So I went up the Sky Tower, and I mounted the Nikon AFS 16-35mm f/4 VR onto my D800. I took this long exposure photo without a tripod through the observation deck’s thick glass window, in spite of that, the D800 still managed to capture a beautiful and detailed photo of the Auckland City. From the street and buildings nearby, to the bus parking space a bit further away, to the marina far away, there are just tonnes of details everywhere.

I wish I could go outside the observation deck so I don’t have to shoot through the thick glass and setup a tripod and shoot a better photo, but I’m still quite happy with what I got!



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Reviewer: Richard Wong

Richard is an award winning wedding/portrait Photographer based in Auckland, New Zealand. Richard is also a contributing writer for the D-Photo magazine. (www.dphoto.co.nz)

Richard’s website is www.photobyrichard.com and his facebook page is http://www.facebook.com/pages/Photo-by-Richard/113755425305636


All photos and text Copyright© 2012 www.nikonjin.com. All photos and text may not be copied or reproduced in any format without obtaining written permissions